“Women’s Health brought the idea to SGA, and we felt that it was a great idea,” she said. “We think the texting while driving simulation is especially worthwhile because it is something that is gaining more attention across the country.” According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, more than 3,000 people were killed as a result of drivers sending text messages while behind the wheel in 2010. In the same year, more than 10,000 people were killed due to drivers getting behind the wheel while under the influence of alcohol, the equivalent of one crash every 51 minutes. These statistics lead Women’s Health and Parsons to bring “Arrive Alive” to campus. Parsons said that while there is no set speaker or planned discussion, students are able to stop by the “Arrive Alive” at any point during the afternoon to participate in the simulator, ask questions or get more information about UNITE. She expects students to gain a new level of respect for the importance of not taking part in risky driving behaviors and the simulator is an effective way to help spread this message. “[SGA] hopes that students learn of the consequences that can come from drinking and driving as well as texting while driving,” she said. “I think anytime you allow students to physically participate in something, the message is better understood.” “I think texting while driving is especially important for students to understand the consequences of because it is a more recent problem with the increase in technology over the last decade,” senior student body president Maureen Parsons said. “People are now tweeting, using Facebook and emailing while driving. It is important for students to understand what can happen and the risks of texting and driving. Students, faculty and staff will have the opportunity to experience distracted driving firsthand at the “Arrive Alive” present Tuesday at the Student Center atrium. “Arrive Alive” will take place Tuesday from 3 p.m. to 7 p.m. in the Student Center atrium. The event, co-sponsored by the Student Government Association (SGA) and Women’s Health, Saint Mary’s health services center, is intended to increase awareness about drunk driving and texting while driving. “With the simulation, student will be able to truly experience what it feels like and what can happen drinking and driving or texting while driving,” Parsons said. The event will feature a car simulation to help participants to get an idea of what it is physically like to drive while drunk or texting. “As college students, it is always important to remind students of the dangers of drinking and driving.” The presenting company, UNITE, is a top health and wellness organization in the country. UNITE visits schools and universities to educate students of all ages across the nation about the risks of distracted driving. Parsons said she is thankful to Women’s Health for bringing the concept to SGA’s attention.
Edge Composite’s new stems are full carbon with cold forged alloy heads and Ti bolts. Ã‚Â 110g for a 110mm, and they’ll be available in 75, 90, 100, 110 and 120mm lengths. Ã‚Â MSRP is $265, and the rep said while they’re designed for road, most of them are riding them on their mountain bikes, too.The front one is the new mountain bike handlebar for 2010. Ã‚Â It’s called the Sweeper and has a 9Ã‚Âº sweep across its 700mm (27.5″) width. Ã‚Â MSRP is $160 and weight is $165g (approximate). INTERBIKE 2009 – No one’s really even making a tubular 29″ mountain bike tire yet, but that didn’t stop Edge Composites from showing off a new tubuler 29er rim.While they wouldn’t come clean with many details, they did say they were working tire manufacturer Dugast and that it’s likely they’ll have something to glue to this thing come Sea Otter next April, which just happens to be about the time they plan to actually release a wheel built on this rim. Ã‚Â So…start saving your pennies now, this bad boy is going to ring up for about $750 per rim, but at just 320g per rim, you’ll float all the way to the poorhouse.It’ll be available in either 28 or 32 hole drillings and a wheelset built on these with DT Swiss 240’s should be about $2,100. Ã‚Â (somehow, the complete wheel price seems better than the sticker shock of a $750 rim…)Edge also showed off some new Seatposts, Stems, Forks and Mountain Bike Handlebars, hit ‘more’ to see them all… To accommodate the growing number of frames with tapered headtubes, Edge introduced two new tapers on their 1.0 full carbon forks: 1-1/8″ to 1-1/2″ (left) and 1-1/8″ to 1-1/4″ (center)The forks weigh in about 330g and price is TBD. Ã‚Â They’re a one-piece mold with a hollow crown, and the brake hole is molded in, not drilled. Ã‚Â Edge says some manufacturers create a solid carbon or aluminum block and then drill the brake hole. Ã‚Â These forks are handbuilt in Utah, USA.Their new seatposts are a one-piece molded design with single-bolt wedge head and will come in either a 0 or 25mm offset. Ã‚Â The weight is 175g per post (350mm 31.6) and will be available in 27.2, 30.9, 31.6 and 34.9 diameters. Ã‚Â MSRP is $295 and they’ll be available in January. Ã‚Â There is no rider weight limit.
Milton Chen at the 2014 Schools of the Future conference in Hawaii. Photo credit Kathy Schrock. Used under a Creative Commons license.Milton Chen to be featured speaker in inaugural Distinguished Leaders Speakers Series. The Shawnee Mission Education Foundation is bringing George Lucas Educational Foundation executive director emeritus Milton Chen to the 1900 Building in Mission Woods August 8 for the inaugural Distinguished Leaders Speaker Series. A leader in education, media and technology for four decades, Chen headed the George Lucas Education Foundation as it expanded its publishing operations, including its popular website Edutopia.org. You can find registration information here.Game On for Kansas Schools releases primary endorsements. Game On for Kansas Schools has released its endorsements for the primary election cycle. In the area House races, Game On endorses incumbents Tom Cox (Republican in District 17), Cindy Neighbor (Democrat in District 18) and Nancy Lusk (Democrat in District 18); and first-time candidates Brandon Woodard (Democrat in District 30) and Colleen Webster (Republican in District 30).
MIG Real Estate purchased Arcadia Gateway Center, an 89,835 SF, Class-A office building in Phoenix.Arcadia Gateway Center is located at 4222 E. Thomas Rd., in a centrally located Phoenix submarket with nearly four times the market’s average submarket net absorption resulting in one of the lowest submarket vacancy rates in Phoenix. The four-story office building features a variety of suite sizes and a three-story, detached parking structure. The building is currently 93 percent leased.Arcadia Gateway Center tenants enjoy views of Camelback Mountain and the Phoenix Mountain Preserve, as well as proximity to Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport and upscale shopping destinations including Downtown Scottsdale and Biltmore Fashion Park. Retail centers such as Arcadia Crossing and Desert Palm are within walking distance.“Arcadia Gateway Center is one of the higher quality office properties along the 44th Street Corridor,” said Greg Merage, CEO of MIG Real Estate. “We plan to continue investing in Phoenix, as it is in the early stages of recovery and is expected to outperform the U.S. in terms of office employment growth and corporate investment, as highlighted by the recent announcement from State Farm to increase its workforce by 6,000 employees.”MIG Real Estate has continued to expand its portfolio in targeted markets since 2009. Its strategic plan focuses on well-located properties with a value-add component. The company has completed approximately $850 million in acquisitions since 2009 through direct purchases of office, retail, hotel and multi-family properties in major markets, principally throughout the western United States and the Sun Belt.Arcadia Gateway Center represents MIG Real Estate’s 19th office investment since 2009.“Arcadia Gateway Center is one of the newest office buildings along the 44th Street Corridor and features an adjacent parking structure, a rare amenity in this submarket,” said Cushman &Wakefield’s Chad Littell. “The Class-A office provides tenants with a central Valley location, proximity to high-end shopping, and stunning views of Camelback Mountain.”Littell, Chris Toci and Tim Whittemore of Cushman & Wakefield of Arizona represented the seller in the transaction.
Mar 22, 2012Army will fold planned high-security lab into another project Instead of building a high-containment lab for animal research as a separate structure, the US Army will put it in another facility that’s already under construction at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Md., the Frederick News Post reported yesterday. Army officials said a new study showed that demand for the facility, called the Medical Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Center, wasn’t high enough to justify a separate building. The facility’s purpose is to help speed Food and Drug Administration approval of biodefense drugs and vaccines, the story said. The center’s mission will not change, but it will be transferred from the Army Medical Materiel Development Activity (USAMMDA) to the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), which is already building new labs at Fort Detrick, with completion expected in 2014, said USAMMDA program manager Kathleen Berst. The report said the lab was announced in 2010 as the answer to a backlog of FDA applications related to disease like Ebola and Marburg fever, for which countermeasures can’t be tested in humans. The project had a construction price tag of about $600 million. Berst estimated that scrapping construction would save about $1 billion over the next decade. Last September the National Research Council (NRC) found fault with the Army’s risk-assessment plan for the facility.Mar 22 News Post reportSep 28, 2011, CIDRAP News story on NRC reportUS military awards contract for further development of flu drugThe US Department of Defense (DoD) recently awarded Boston firm MediVector Inc. a $138.5 million contract for further development of the investigational influenza drug favipiravir, also called T-705. In announcing the award on Mar 15, DoD’s Joint Project Manager Transformational Medical Technologies (JPM-TMT) described the antiviral as “a broad-spectrum therapeutic against multiple influenza viruses.” “This drug shows promise that it can mitigate flu symptoms by interfering with the influenza replication process,” David E. Hough, joint project manager for JPM-TMT, said in a press release. Favipiravir has already shown positive results in numerous animal studies and in phase 1 clinical trials, the release said. Lt. Col. David Gibson, another JPM-TMT official, said phase 3 clinical trials for the drug could begin as early as this fall. Favipiravir was originally developed by Toyama Chemical Co. of Japan and has a different mechanism of action from neuraminidase inhibitors, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), according to earlier reports.Mar 15 JPM TMT news releaseOct 29, 2009, CIDRAP News story that mentions T-705 clinical trialsUS TB rate reached all-time low in 2011, but disparities increasedThe incidence of new tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States dropped to an all-time low in 2011, but disparities among racial and ethnic groups and between US- and foreign-born Americans grew, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported today. The nation had 10,521 new TB cases in 2011, or 3.4 cases per 100,000 population, which is 6.4% lower than the rate in 2010 and the lowest since national reporting began in 1953, the CDC said in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). But compared with figures for whites, TB rates were seven times higher in Hispanics, eight times higher in blacks, and 25 times higher in Asians. Although cases have declined even among Asians, they have become the largest ethnic group among TB patients, with 29.9% of all cases. Further, the TB rate for foreign-born people was 12 times that of those born in the United States. In other findings, 81% of TB patients had a known (positive or negative) HIV status, and 7.9% had the co-infection, an all-time low. A total of 109 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were reported in 2010, the latest figures available, and four cases of extensively drug-resistant disease were reported in 2011. Noting that the TB rate still falls short of the goal of 1.0 case per 100,000, set in 1989, the CDC said, “If current efforts are not improved or expanded, TB elimination is unlikely before the year 2100.”Mar 23 MMWR articleUnique triple reassortant H3N2 viruses in turkeys include pH1N1 genetic materialThree unique triple reassortant (TR) H3N2 influenza viruses bearing gene segments from 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) in domestic turkeys were reported by a Canadian group in PLoS One yesterday. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time pH1N1/TR H3N2 reassortant viruses have been reported in domestic poultry. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were obtained from turkeys on three geographically separate breeder turkey farms in southern Ontario that had experienced significant drops in egg production but no clinical signs of disease. Genetic characterization of the samples from one farm showed the eight gene segments of the virus to all be of TR H3N2 lineage. The samples from the other two farms, however, were unique reassortants, with gene segments from both pH1N1 and TR H3N2. The turkeys on the latter two farms had been vaccinated before the outbreak with the only vaccine approved in Canada against H3N2 influenza in turkeys, an H3N4 oil emulsion vaccine. The researchers found that sera collected from the vaccinated turkeys were not able to neutralize the new pH1N1/TR H3N2 virus isolated in the study. The authors note that close proximity of turkey and swine farms, which is thought to play a role in the epidemiology of TR H3N2 flu virus infection in turkeys, is common in the area where the tested farms are located. They also say that, despite the common view of pigs as efficient “mixing vessels” for generations of reassortant influenza viruses, “We cannot exclude the possibility that the reassortment between TR H3N2 and pH1N1 took place in turkeys.”Mar 21 PLoS One articleMeasles cases down in much of Europe, Ukraine not includedJanuary of this year saw 584 cases of measles reported by 29 European Union and European Economic Area countries, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) announced today. This number is far lower than the numbers in January of 2011 and 2010, which stood at 2,289 and 2,673, respectively. No new measles cases were reported from 15 of the countries, and the only country with more than 1 case per 100,000 population was Romania. Of concern is an outgoing outbreak of measles in Ukraine, particularly the western part of the country, which borders on Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. Ukraine, along with Poland, is hosting the European Football Championship (Euro 2012) in June, expected to attract numerous soccer fans. Elimination of measles by 2015 is the stated goal of the World Health Organization’s European Region countries, which includes the 29 countries reporting here.Mar 22 ECDC press release
Anguilla is now officially categorized by the World Health Organization as having “no cases” of COVID- 19. As part of the World Health Organization’s continual review of the transmission classification of COVID-19 cases, the Ministry of Health was notified on June 16th that Anguilla’s classification was changed from “sporadic cases” to “no cases”. The change is reflected in the WHO situation report of June 18th. Six Eastern Caribbean countries deemed safe for travel – CDC However, we are at an important juncture as we gradually begin to reopen our borders and return to normalcy. We must remain steadfast in our efforts to prevent SARS-CoV-2 from ever establishing a foothold in our community by continuing to practice the range of control measures which have been in force over the last few months. This includes staying home if unwell, hand and respiratory hygiene and maintaining a physical distance of at least 3 feet from other persons, especially from those with respiratory symptoms (e.g. coughing, sneezing). Oct 16, 2020 Oct 16, 2020 St. Lucia records more cases of COVID St. Kitts And Nevis Confirms Two COVID-19 CasesNATIONAL STATEMENT ON COVID-19 By the Hon Wendy Colleen Phipps Minister of State with Responsibility for Health March 25, 2020 In my capacity as Minister of State with Responsibility for Health, it is my duty to inform you that as of 11:03 pm on Tuesday, March 24, 2020, the Federation…March 25, 2020In “CARICOM”T&T could keep borders closed until after Aug 10 pollsPORT OF SPAIN, Trinidad (CMC) – The Trinidad and Tobago Government says it has no plans to rush towards reopening the borders of the country closed since March in a bid to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Oppositions parties have been calling on Prime Minister Dr Keith…July 7, 2020In “General”CARPHA Turnaround Time for COVID-19 Testing Remains Consistent with No Test Results PendingAs the regional reference laboratory, the CARPHA Medical Microbiology Laboratory (CMML) continues to conduct tests for suspected COVID-19 cases for 18 of its 26 Member States. Throughout the pandemic period, CARPHA has been guiding laboratory action through science-based testing protocols based on the latest recommendations by the World Health Organization…August 14, 2020In “CARICOM”Share this on WhatsApp CMO says Saint Lucia at critical stage of COVID-19 outbreak More deaths from COVID-19 recorded in CARICOM countries,… Oct 15, 2020 You may be interested in… This is undoubtedly an important milestone and a great achievement for Anguilla. Moreover, we have come this far because of a unified effort and the cooperation of the wider community. Oct 15, 2020 However, today we pause to celebrate and the Ministry of Health and the Government of Anguilla hereby express sincerest congratulations and appreciation to the people of Anguilla for this remarkable achievement. We need your continued cooperation going forward. The Ministry of Health will continue to provide timely updates through our media partners, our official Facebook page or at www.beatcovid19.ai. Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… These practices are the new normal which are of even greater importance to be maintained into the foreseeable future as we must now strive to coexist with the virus.
Tier 4: the recent statement of changes has clarified that a tier 4 student migrant may now fill a full-time vacancy during vacations (provided it is temporary), including as a doctor in training on a recognised foundation programme. This provision does not extend to law students undertaking their training contracts or pupillage. Studying law with a UK institution and becoming a solicitor or barrister in the UK has long been an esteemed achievement by lawyers around the world. Historically, the UK has welcomed migrants who wish to undertake the challenge. Immigration rules (the rules) and related concessions have made routes to becoming a solicitor or barrister in the UK available to migrants, in particular to Commonwealth citizens. The rules now accommodate students under tier 4 of the points-based system (PBS). Accordingly, there has been a steady movement to delete the concessions ‘outside’ of the rules accommodating ‘unconventional’ categories of students. These changes in policy could have a significant negative impact on migrants who wish to qualify as UK lawyers. Options under PBSWith the introduction of the PBS and the deletion of the concessions, where does that leave law students wishing to undertake training contracts and pupillages? Tier 1: tier 1 of the PBS was launched in full on 30 June 2008 and supposedly caters to highly skilled migrants. Tier 1 (general) permits employment or self-employment in the UK and was a route available to students. Someone with a degree qualification (such as an LLB) and a minimum earnings period (over 12 consecutive months within a 15-month period before making their application) could qualify to enter/remain in the UK under tier 1 (general). The 12-month period allowed for earnings could be before a period of full-time study. On 31 March 2009 the bar was raised to prevent points being awarded for a bachelors degree or for previous earnings under £20,000. Following these changes, the September 2009 statement of changes removed the provision for a period of study to be taken into account when considering previous earnings. UKBA states, unconstructively, that this latest change will ensure that decisions are based on an applicant’s ‘recent’ work experience and earning capability, which better demonstrate their ability to make a significant contribution to the UK labour market. An adverse effect of this change is that tier 1 (general) is no longer an option even for students who already have a masters degree but have just completed their year of study on the legal practice course (LPC) or bar vocational course (BVC). Tier 1 (post-study work), which replaced several programmes including the International Graduates Scheme, allows those who completed a course of study in the UK at an eligible institution within the last 12 months to enter/remain in the UK for two years. Post-study workers may engage in employment without the need for sponsorship, making this an ideal category for a trainee or pupil to remain in the UK. Until 31 March 2009, an applicant could qualify for this category if they had a UK postgraduate certificate or diploma. Unfortunately, this category no longer recognises postgraduate diploma courses, including the LPC or BVC, as eligible qualifications. The professional graduate certificate in education continues to be recognised and the recent statement of changes reinstated the Scottish professional graduate diploma in education as an eligible qualification that attracts points under the tier 1 (post-study work) category, but surprisingly fails to reinstate legal professional courses. Law students, particularly BVC students, are unlikely to find tier 1 accommodating. Tier 2: tier 2 is an option for law students who wish to undertake training contracts in the UK. Law firms employing migrants can act as a tier 2 sponsor during the training period and on qualification. This option does not extend to bar students who undertake pupillage with chambers, due to the self-employed nature of the role. The points-based system The PBS for immigration was introduced in 2008 to streamline the routes of entry for prospective migrants seeking to work or study in the UK. The implementation of the PBS has been punctuated by promises from the UKBA of a transparent and fair immigration system based on objective ‘points’ criteria. The removal of discretion under the system has led to the elimination of several concessions outside the rules. Thus, in March 2008 the concessions for bar students and those on a pupillage scheme were removed; and on 30 June 2008, the concession for self-employed lawyers was deleted. Most recently, on 1 October 2009, the home secretary’s latest statement of changes to the immigration rules came into effect. Upon scrutiny of these changes, it has become apparent that there remain gaps in the PBS that have serious consequences for migrant students wishing to remain in the UK, particularly for the completion of training at the bar. Tier 5: tier 5 of the PBS covers a range of temporary worker categories enabling prospective migrants to enter the UK for primarily non-economic reasons. The Law Society notes: ‘For the legal sector, sharing knowledge, experience and best practice with lawyers from around the world through work experience, secondment and internship programmes is essential to business development.’ The Law Society has registered as a tier 5 sponsor to open a route under the government-authorised exchange framework within tier 5. The Law Society can sponsor migrants and enable firms to continue to develop international networks and run secondment and exchange programmes. Whether tier 5 government authorised exchange may in the future allow for migrants who have obtained pupillage to remain in the UK under sponsorship of, for example, the Bar Council, remains to be seen. Osborne Clarke judgmentIn the case of Osborne Clarke Services v Purohit  UKEAT/0305/08, the employer had a policy of refusing to consider any training contract applications from non-EEA nationals who required a work permit. The employment appeals tribunal ruled that this was in breach of race discrimination laws, being indirectly discriminatory on the grounds of nationality, as the proportion of non-EEA nationals who could comply with it was considerably smaller than the proportion of EEA nationals, and was not justifiable under the provisions of the Race Relations Act 1996. If it is contrary to the law for an applicant to be prevented from pursuing a legal career in the UK on the basis of their nationality, then surely the immigration rules should account for this. The September 2009 statement of changes provides that the minor amendments and corrections to the PBS are not intended to have an impact on businesses or individual applicants. Nevertheless, they are part of a progressive tightening of the rules and policies surrounding migrant workers since the PBS introduction, and there has been a clear gap left in the system into which law students may inadvertently fall. The old student rules and concessions outside the rulesBefore the introduction of the PBS in February 2008, the rules for students allowed non-European (EEA) nationals to study in the UK at institutions on the Register of Education and Training Providers (RETP). Students were required to have evidence of: their acceptance onto a full-time course; the funds to pay course fees and maintain themselves in the UK; and their intention to leave the UK following graduation. Under the old student rules it was understood that law students might not meet these full criteria due to the nature of their courses and the restrictions of practising in a particular jurisdiction. Nevertheless, the UK Border Agency (UKBA) recognised that law students should not necessarily be excluded from the UK. The intentions of a foreign national who sought entry or requested an extension of stay to pursue a course of legal studies in the UK were reviewed carefully. Consequently, the immigration directorate instructions noted that a prospective law student should ideally intend to teach law, act as a consultant on British law in his country of residence, or be a student of comparative law. Fair enough. If the aim of an immigration system is to allow for migration to and from a country in a manner which benefits that country without displacing a resident workforce, it would make sense to ensure that students training to become lawyers in the UK are those who will be practising in the English common law jurisdiction, for example British nationals or those settled in the UK. However, a full training in UK law is beneficial to legal practice in many countries. Furthermore, it is too simplistic to assume that only British nationals would be interested in practising law in the UK. Enabling the UK legal profession to operate as a meritocracy regardless of nationality could only improve the quality and calibre of its practitioners. Before the introduction of the PBS this seemed to be the adopted mindset, and there were concessions that lay outside the rules to allow both for law students to continue their training in the UK and for foreign lawyers to practise law in the UK in a self-employed capacity in partnership with English solicitors, as a partner with a firm of foreign lawyers, or as a sole practitioner. One of the concessions in place was for bar students. Barristers are not required to study full time by the Council of Legal Education. In agreement with the Home Office, law students accepted by one of the Inns of Court did not have to meet the full-time study requirement, nor was reference to the RETP a requirement. Any barrister who wishes to exercise rights of audience before a court must have completed 12 months’ pupillage. Before the PBS, barristers who could demonstrate that they had been accepted on a pupillage scheme with a recognised chambers (paid or unpaid) could be treated as students under the rules, subject to certain criteria. Another concession enabled articled clerks to remain in the UK as students to undertake sponsored pupillage employment with the Crown Prosecution Service following their two years’ articles. Remaining in the UK as a bar student and pupil was therefore an option for a non-EEA national before the introduction of the PBS. Shanti Faiia, trainee solicitor at Laura Devine Solicitors, contributed to this article
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The Paris – Strasbourg TGV line is the first in France to be equipped with ETCS Level 2 for trains running through to Germany, but will also have the domestic TVM430 train control. Richard Hope explains how some complex system interface issues are being resolvedJUNE 2007 has been set for the start of commercial services on the 300 km first stage of TGV Est, or LGVEst Européenne, as it is officially known, between Vaires-sur-Marne 23 km from the Paris Est terminus and Baudrecourt, near Metz. Given the delays elsewhere, it may yet turn out to be the first line in the world on which the standard operating speed is 320 km/h – although this speed is already permitted on short sections of TGV Méditerranée. The alignment will permit 350 km/h in the future. No firm date has been set for completion of the remaining 106 km to Vendenheim, on the edge of Strasbourg, but it is hoped that construction will get underway by 2010 at the latest.The official name reflects the fact that TGVEst is destined to be a very important international route, even before the second section is completed. According to Alain Le Guellec, SNCF’s Director responsible for TGV Est services, 30% of passengers using the fleet of 52 TGV sets allocated to this line will be travelling to or from Germany or Switzerland, and 70% on domestic services or those to Luxembourg. This made TGV Est the logical choice for the first ERTMS installation in France.From June 2007, Frankfurt will be only 3 h 45 min from Paris via Saarbrücken and Mannheim, with five daily services each way from December 2007. Paris to München via Stuttgart and Strasbourg will take 6 h, and Zürich via Strasbourg and Basel 4 h 30 min. RFF and SNCF reached the cost-effective decision that TVM430, the standard LGV signalling system, must also be available. Because the projected loadings do not generally justify double-deck stock, 33 TGV Réseau trainsets are being refurbished. These will not be equipped with ERTMS, and will operate over the new line using TVM430. There will also be 19 TGV POS trainsets equipped specifically to operate the international services into Germany and Switzerland. Formed from new multi-system power cars and refurbished TGV Réseau trailers, they will be fitted with ERTMS and TVM430, with ERTMS used for preference on the TGV Est, and existing train protection systems such as Indusi and LZB when running in Germany. For operation in Switzerland they will be fitted with ZUB and Integra.In addition, five of German Railway’s ICE3M trains are being adapted to run through to Paris. These will be fitted with TVM430 for use on TGV Est and the French KVB automatic train protection needed to allow them to run on conventional lines; they will be equipped with ERTMS at a later date.GSM-R already in useA GSM-R radio network is already in use for works trains on TGVEst, and this will be used to support the ERTMS. This spring will see GSM-R brought into use for voice only along the existing line between Paris and Bar-le-Duc. Addressing the Institution of Railway Signal Engineers’ convention in Strasbourg last September, Jean Cellmer of RFF explained that TGV Est would be ‘totally immersed’ in a larger area where GSM-R coverage would be in use on other lines from a total of 58 base stations, replacing obsolete analogue radio systems.Cellmer said that each base station was being connected to both of the TGV Est switching centres from which the communications network is monitored. This is being done to create redundancy, and also to avoid any problems with handing over a train from one centre to the other. Whereas a TVM failure only affects about 20 km of track, which is manageable in terms of keeping trains moving using block markers and verbal orders, ‘we face the risk of losing ETCS along the whole line’ if the radio network breaks down, he explained.In addition, RFF has decided to install solar-powered trackside ‘phones’ on TGV Est that are linked independently by radio to the traffic control centre at Pagny-sur-Moselle. These can be used to keep trains moving if there is a total failure of the ERTMS.’One signalling system’Olivier Pignal, SNCF’s Director responsible for ERTMS, is at pains to emphasise that ‘for signalling designers, for safety engineers, for signallers and TGV Est traffic controllers there is only one signalling system.’ The block sections are the same.In the case of the drivers, they must drive to ERTMS rules if the train is equipped with ETCS, but if not they must drive according to TVM rules. A train using TGV Est can be fitted with either system, or with both, in which case ETCS will normally be used.One of the first safety issues to be addressed was the compatibility of the track-to-train transmission systems used by TVM and ERTMS. TVM430 relies on coded track circuits using a 2kHz carrier in the rails to provide continuous communication, and local loops transmitting at 62·5kHz and 125Hz. ERTMS sends data by GSM-R at 1800MHz, and the Eurobalise operates at 27MHz. No difficulties there.Pignal noted, however, that there had been ‘some problems of compatibility between KVB and Eurobalises’ when ETCS-equipped trains used the conventional lines in France – but this had nothing to do with the use of TVM and ETCS Level 2 on the same line.The basic signalling function on TGV Est is performed by Ansaldo SEI interlockings, which detect the location of trains from track circuit occupation and send instructions to the train via the TVM track circuit codes.The Radio Block Centres collect the data they require from the SEI interlockings (Fig 1), and use it to generate movement authorities for transmission to those trains that are being driven in ERTMS mode.One difficulty that had to be overcome was the fact that when TVM enforces a stop from 300 km/h it displays to the driver successive speed reductions, along with a target distances to the next reduction, until ‘000’ appears. One block section is left as a safety overlap in case braking is not fully effective.An ERTMS train, by contrast, calculates and enforces a smooth braking curve using data stored on board. It requires no overlap because that safety margin is built into the braking curve. This will permit any ERTMS trains with improved braking characteristics that may be introduced in the future to follow each other more closely without altering the signalling parameters, thus automatically reducing the headway.The signaller should see no variation in the way he handles trains using ERTMS or TVM, even though the drivers may have to follow different procedures.Pignal quotes the example of two trainsets starting from different locations that have to be joined at an intermediate stop for the journey to Paris. If the second train to arrive is running on TVM, the driver will stop it at the Nf03 marker board (Fig 2). After a short interval, he will take his train forward on sight to stop at the rear of the first trainset, where they are then coupled.If ERTMS is being used, the second train arrives under a movement authority which ends close to the F05 marker. Having stopped here, the driver requests authority to drive on sight. When this is granted, an icon appears on his cab display and he can move forward.Driver-Machine InterfaceAs might be expected, the displays in the cab which tell the driver how fast he is going and indicate how fast he should be going are quite different for ERTMS and TVM (Fig 3). ERTMS uses an electronic dial to display the actual speed, the permitted speed, the target speed (which may be zero), and the distance to that target location. The linear and digital TVM display shows the target speed, which must not be exceeded when passing the next lineside marker board, and the distance to go to the target. The actual speed is shown elsewhere on the desk.As TGV Est is interoperable, all trains fitted with ERTMS must use the standard speed and target distance displays as laid down in the appropriate TSI. The Driver-Machine Interface that will be installed in the cabs of TGV POS therefore includes the standard ERTMS dial arrangement and other features mandated by the TSI (Fig 4). This display will also be installed in the Thalys TGV fleet for operating on high speed lines in Belgium and the Netherlands (p142). Obviously, drivers of TGVs relying on TVM430 will have to know the normal rules that apply to high speed lines in France. However, the rules for driving ERTMS trains are standardised and mandatory on TGV Est for any train using ERTMS. In degraded modes, such as passing closed markers and driving on sight, the rules normally in force on TGV lines will apply. But to give an order to the train, the signaller will use European forms to ensure that the instruction is understood by the driver.Validation at ValenciennesIn view of the complexities involved in using two train control systems on the same line, and the difficulties that arise from trying to validate them on a working railway, Pignal explains that the first stage of this process is already in progress in a laboratory at the Centre d’Essais Ferroviaires test centre near Valenciennes.Two rooms are used, one representing the trackside equipment and the other representing the train (Fig 5). The first room contains two radio block centres supplied by Ansaldo which are actually receiving data in real time from interlockings controlling TGV movements between the stations at Aéroport Charles-de-Gaulle and Marne-la-Vallée.The second room contains the Eurocab modules and the driver’s display, which is connected by GSM-R modules to the RBCs. Simulators supply data on the movement of the ‘train’ being driven such as the speed and braking force. Eurocabs from different suppliers can also be tested here to demonstrate cross-acceptance.The second test phase, which started in January, uses SNCF’s ERTMS test train which runs around a loop inside the Valenciennes site at up to 80 km/h. The train exchanges data with the two RBCs in the laboratory (Fig 6). Tests that cannot be done in the laboratory but are possible on the test ring include movements at stations with points.The next stage, planned for this spring, is to run the test train on an existing high speed line, and once again the TGV Ile de France between Charles-de-Gaulle and Marne-la-Vallée will be used for this purpose, still communicating with the two RBCs at Valenciennes.Finally, the test train will move to the section of TGV Est which has been completed early, in readiness for validation of the complete system. Then it will be time to operate a TGV POS at 320 km/h in preparation for the start of commercial service in June 2007.Picture caption: TOP: After commissioning tests at Velim, SNCF’s pre-series TGV POS trainset is currently undergoing interoperability certification trials on the German Railway networkPhoto:DB AG/AlabisoRIGHT: Fig 1. Overview of the combined ETCS Level 2 and TVM430 signalling installation being developed for TGV Est Picture caption: Fig 2. ERTMS will allow portioned workings to be joined more efficiently by reducing the distance over which the second portion must be driven slowly on sightPicture caption: BELOW LEFT: Fig 3. The ERTMS driver-machine interface (left) provides more information than the present TVM cab signalling display (below)RIGHT: Fig 4. The driver-machine interface for the TGV POS trainsets is based on the ERTMS standards, and will also be retrofitted on the Thalys multi-system TGV derivatives Picture caption: ABOVELEFT: Fig 5. The ERTMS validation tests at Valenciennes are based in two rooms, with one representing the lineside equipment and the other the trainborne systemsABOVE: Fig 6. Once the tests at Valenciennes have been completed, SNCF’s ERTMS test train will be used to validate real-time operations using a section of TGVIle-de-France, communicating with the twoRBCs at the test centre Picture caption: SNCF’s ERTMS test train is currently being used to validate the Level 2 equipment at Valenciennes, and will then start live testing on a section of TGVIle-de-FranceIntegrating ETCS Level 2 with TVM430 on TGV Est EuropéenneThe 320 km/h Paris – Strasbourg TGV line will be the first in France to be equipped with ERTMS Level 2, but it will also have TVM430 train control for domestic TGV services. Richard Hope explains how SNCF and RFF are resolving some complex interface issues by ensuring that the two systems do not interfere with each other, and making their differences invisible to signalling staff even though the drivers must observe different operating rules.Intégrer l’ETCS de Niveau 2 avec la TVM430 sur la TGV Est EuropéenneAutorisée à 320 km/h, la ligne TGV Paris – Strasbourg sera la première de France à être équipée de l’ERTMS de Niveau 2, mais, pour les TGV du service intérieur, elle sera également équipée du dispositif de contrôle des trains TVM430. Richard Hope explique comment la SNCF et RFF sont en train de résoudre des problèmes complexes d’interface, en s’assurant que les deux systèmes n’interfèrent pas entre eux et en faisant en sorte que leurs différences soient transparentes pour le personnel de la signalisation même si les conducteurs devront respecter des règles d’exploitation différentesIntegration von ETCS Level 2 mit TVM430 auf der TGV Est EuropéenneDie für 320 km/h ausgelegte TGV-Linie Paris – Strasbourg wird die erste mit ERTMS Level 2 ausgerüstete Strecke Frankreichs sein, aber sie besitzt auch die TVM430 Zugsicherung zur Steuerung der Inland-TGV-Dienste. Richard Hope erklärt wie SNCF und RFF einige komplexe Schnittstellen-Probleme l”sen, und sicherstellen, dass die beiden Systeme sich nicht gegenseitig st”ren, jedoch deren Unterschiede für die Betriebsleitstelle unsichtbar machen, obwohl die Triebfahrzeugführer unterschiedliche Regeln befolgen müssenIntegración del ETCS Nivel 2 con TVM430 en TGV Est EuropéenneLa línea TGV de 320 km/h Paris – Strasbourg no sólo ser la primera en Francia en estar equipada con ERTMS Nivel 2, sino que también dispondr de control de tren TVM430 para servicios TGV domésticos. Richard Hope nos explica cómo SNCF y RFF est n resolviendo algunos complejos asuntos de coordinación de interfaz asegur ndose de que ambos sistemas no interfieren en uno con el otro, adem s de trabajar para hacer desaparecer sus diferencias al personal de señalización pese a que los maquinistas sí deber n obedecer distintas reglas operativas
The High Court of Malawi on Tuesday convicted and sentenced three people to death for killing a person with albinism.The three, identified as Douglas Mwale, Fontino Folosani and Sophie Jere killed Priscott Pepuzani in 2015, using a metal bar and a hoe handle, before chopping off his limbs and later buried his body in a garden.Albinism is a genetic disorder resulting in little or not color for eyes, hair or skin.During a court ruling in the Mchinji District of the Central Region of Malawi, Judge Esmie Chombo said the court found and proved beyond reasonable doubt that the three murdered the victim.Chombo said the sentence would help to warn and deter others from committing the same crime, as murders of people with albinism are becoming rampant.The landmark sentence has been applauded by various communities in Malawi, including albino-rights activists and lawyers.“We are satisfied with this ‘sentence’ given the nature of the crime and the circumstances Mr. Pepuzani was killed, which created trauma and panic to persons with albinism in the country,” government attorney Mathews Kamadzi told local media.Persons with albinism in Malawi are facing attacks and killings due to a negative mystification of albinism.There have been at least 25 killings of albino since 2014, a spree that has spread terror through the 10,000-strong albino community, local media reported.Early May, the high court sentenced another killer Willard Mikaele to death for murdering 19-year-old albino Mphatso Pensulo in 2017.